Department of Educational Psychology


Document Type


Date of this Version



Journal of Religion and Health 61:4 (August 2022), pp. 3525–3541.

doi: 10.1007/s10943-021-01465-6


Copyright © 2021 Paul E. Yeatts, Dena M. Abbott, Debra Mollen. Published by Springer Science+ Business Media, LLC. Used by permission.


The Atheist Identity Concealment Scale (AICS) was developed as a tool to assess the degree to which atheists conceal their atheist identity from others. Drawing on concealable stigmatized identity (CSI) theory, the aim of this study was to provide researchers with a valid means to effectively assess atheist identity concealment. Using three separate samples of more than 500 adults in the USA, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted which ultimately resulted in a short, robust measure that comprised eight items. Additional validity evidence was provided by examining the relationship between the AICS and several previously validated tools (i.e., outness, nonreligiosity, depression, anxiety, stress, and self-esteem).