Department of Educational Psychology


Date of this Version



Mental Health, Religion & Culture 23:10 (2020), pp. 874–887.

doi: 10.1080/13674676.2020.1858771


Copyright © 2021 Informa UK Limited/Taylor & Francis Group. Used by permission.


Using a Concealable Stigmatized Identity (CSI) framework, the present study explored disclosure and concealment of atheist identity, anti-atheist discrimination, and psychological distress among participants (N = 87) identified as both atheists and people of color residing in the United States (US). Path analysis was utilized to examine the relationships among variables. Consistent with past CSI and outness research, the final model suggested small, significant associations between higher disclosure of atheist identity and more experiences of anti-atheist discrimination as well as between higher concealment and higher psychological distress. Unexpectedly, higher concealment of atheist identity was associated with higher anti-atheist discrimination and, contrary to previous studies, higher disclosure was associated with higher psychological distress. Notably, there was no significant relationship between anti-atheist discrimination and psychological distress in the final model. Implications for future research, training, and practice are provided.