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Random noise polarimetry is a new radar technique for high-resolution probing of subsurface objects and interfaces. The University of Nebraska has developed a polarimetric random noise radar system based on the heterodyne correlation technique. Simulation studies and performance tests on the system confirm its ability to respond to phase differences in the received signals. In addition to polarimetric processing capability and the simplified system design, random noise radar also possesses other desirable features, such as immunity from radio frequency interference (RFI). The paper discusses the theoretical foundations of random noise polarimetry, and presents examples out of the entire data set collected that demonstrate the usefulness of the image processing and Stokes matrix presentation to enhance target detection using the coherent random noise radar.