Date of this Version
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2809501
Millions of sensors are deployed to monitor the smart grid. They consume huge amounts of energy in the communication infrastructure. Therefore, the establishment of an energy-efficient medium access control (MAC) protocol for sensor nodes is challenging and urgently needed. The Quorum-based MAC protocol independently and adaptively schedules nodes’ wake-up times and decreases idle listening and collisions, thereby increasing the network throughput and extending the network lifetime. A novel Quorum time slot adaptive condensing (QTSAC)-based MAC protocol is proposed for achieving delay minimization and energy efficiency for the wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Compared to previous protocols, the QTSAC-based MAC protocol has two main novelties: 1) It selects more Quorum time slots (QTSs) than previous protocols in the area that is far from the sink according to the energy consumption in WSNs to decrease the network latency and 2) It allocates QTSs only when data are transmitted to further decrease the network latency. Theoretical analyses and experimental results indicate that the QTSAS protocol can greatly improve network performance compared with existing Quorum-based MAC protocols. For intermediate-scale wireless sensor networks, the method that is proposed in this paper can enhance the energy efficiency by 24.64%–82.75%, prolong the network lifetime by 58%–27.31%, and lower the network latency by 3.59%–29.23%.