Electrical & Computer Engineering, Department of


Date of this Version



Mansouri, A, Ledwidge, P, Sayood, K, and Molfese, DL (2021) A routine electroencephalography monitoring system for automated sports-related concussion detection. Neurotrauma Reports 2:1, 626–638, DOI:10.1089/neur.2021.0047.


Open access.


Cases of concussions in the United States keep increasing and are now up to 2 million to 3 million incidents per year. Although concussions are recoverable and usually not life-threatening, the degree and rate of recovery may vary depending on age, severity of the injury, and past concussion history. A subsequent concussion before full recovery may lead to more-severe brain damage and poorer outcomes. Electroencephalography (EEG) recordings can identify brain dysfunctionality and abnormalities, such as after a concussion. Routine EEG monitoring can be a convenient method for reducing unreported injuries and preventing long-term damage, especially among groups with a greater risk of experiencing a concussion, such as athletes participating in contact sports. Because of the relative availability of EEG compared to other brain-imaging techniques (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging), the use of EEG monitoring is growing for various neurological disorders. In this longitudinal study, EEG was analyzed from 4 football athletes before their athletic season and also within 7 days of concussion. Compared to a control group of 4 additional athletes, a concussion was detected with up to 99.5% accuracy using EEG recordings in the Theta-Alpha band. Classifiers that use data from only a subset of the EEG electrodes providing reliable detection are also proposed. The most effective classifiers used EEG recordings from the Central scalp region in the Beta band and over the Temporal scalp region using the Theta-Alpha band. This proof-ofconcept study and preliminary findings suggest that EEG monitoring may be used to identify a sports-related concussion occurrence with a high level of accuracy and thus reduce the chance of unreported concussion.