Electrical & Computer Engineering, Department of


Date of this Version



Khan, D.; Mandal, K.; Ray, A.K.; El Aroudi, A. A Unified Switched Nonlinear Dynamic Model of an Electric Vehicle for Performance Evaluation. Electronics 2023, 12, 3173. https://doi.org/10.3390/ electronics12143173


Open access.


The advanced modeling and estimation of overall system dynamics play a vital role in electric vehicles (EVs), as the selection of components in the powertrain and prediction of performance are the key market qualifiers. The state-space averaged model and small-signal transfer function model are useful for assessing long-term behavior in system-level analysis and for designing the controller parameters, respectively. Both models take less computation time but ignore the high-frequency switching dynamics. Therefore, these two models could be impractical for the development and testing of EV prototypes. On the other hand, the multi-domain model in available simulation tools gives in-depth information about the short-term behavior and loss analysis of power electronic devices in each subsystem, considering the switching dynamics in a long computation time. In this paper, a general mathematical framework for the dynamical analysis of complete EVs is presented using a unified, switched nonlinear model. This equation-based model runs faster than the available module-based simulation tools. Two other models, namely the time domain state-space averaged model and frequency domain small-signal transfer function model, are also developed from the switched nonlinear model for the analysis with less computation time. The design and performance of an EV with two different motors and its controllers are evaluated using the general mathematical framework.