Electrical & Computer Engineering, Department of


Date of this Version



Scientific Reports | (2023) 13:11066 | https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-37890-8


Open access.


In this paper, we propose a method to generate Vector Vortex Modes (VVM) inside a metallic cylindrical waveguide at microwave frequencies and demonstrate the experimental validation of the concept. Vector vortex modes of EM waves can carry both spin and orbital angular momentum as they propagate within a tubular medium. The existence of such waves in tubular media can be beneficial to wireless communication in such structures. These waves can carry different orbital angular momentum and spin angular momentum, and therefore, they feature the ability to carry multiple orthogonal modes at the same frequency due to spatial structure of the phase and polarization. In essence, high data rate channels can be developed using such waves. In free space, Orbital Angular Momentum carrying vortex waves have beam divergence issues and a central field-minima, which makes these waves unfavorable for free space communication. But vector vortex mode waves in guided structures do not suffer from these drawbacks. This prospect of enhancement of communication spectrum in waveguides provides the background for the study of vortex wave in circular waveguides. In this work, new feed structures and a radial array of monopoles are designed to generate the VVM carrying waves inside the waveguide. The experimental findings on the distribution of the amplitude and phase of the electromagnetic fields inside the waveguide are presented and the relationship between the waveguide fundamental modes and VVMs are discussed for the first time. The paper also presents methods for varying the cutoff frequency of the VVMs by introducing dielectric materials in the waveguide.