Graduate Studies


First Advisor

Ozan N. Ciftci

Date of this Version


Document Type



Kaiser, Steven. (2018). Use of nanoporous corn starch aerogel for flavor delivery. MS Thesis, Dept of Food Science and Technology. University of Nebraska-Lincoln.


A THESIS Presented to the Faculty of The Graduate College at the University of Nebraska In Partial Fulfillment of Requirements For the Degree of Master of Science, Major: Food Science and Technology, Under the Supervision of Professor Ozan N. Ciftci. Lincoln, Nebraska: December 2018

Copyright © 2018 Steven Kaiser


In recent years, consumers demand for clean green food products has shifted the food industry toward natural food options. To contend for shopper’s attention in a competitive marketplace, new flavors are constantly being developed and introduced thanks to new inventive flavor delivery systems. However, flavors can be an ingredient of concern because of their traditional unfamiliar carrier ingredients necessary for encapsulation, as flavors are delicate and require protection from the rigor of production and shelf life.

The main objective of this thesis was to develop a novel flavor delivery system using a clean process. The specific objectives were to develop nanoporous corn starch aerogels using a green process based on SC-CO2 technology, and to load the nanoporous corn starch aerogels with butter flavor using SC-CO2 to develop a food grade novel flavor delivery system. Aerogels were formed from corn starch using a green process via SC-CO2 technology. Created aerogels had unique physical properties, with a surface area of 221 m²/g and average pore diameter of 7 nm. Butter flavor was then successfully loaded into the nanoporous CSA utilizing the same SC-CO2 technology. Impregnation condition that resulted in the highest loading capacity (1.18 g oil/g CSA) was 60 °C for 120 min. Conversely, highest flavor compound total on a per gram oil basis was found at 168 mg analyte at the 60 °C for 30 min. Loading capacity proportionately increased with impregnation time, however increased time reduced the overall flavor compound concentration. SC-CO2 solvent power with lower molecular weight compounds was apparent, as it significantly increased concentration in shorter time, whereas increased impregnation time resulted in extracted flavor compounds due to the semi-static impregnation process.

Nanoporous CSAs are promising flavor carriers. The loading process is done at a low temperature which is advantageous for flavor compounds and not typical compared to traditional industry encapsulation techniques. Additionally, because of aerogels’ excellent physical properties, such as high surface area, they offer high loading capacity, which again, is uncommon with standard encapsulation methods employed by the industry today.

Advisor: Ozan N. Ciftci