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Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), feeding injury on ‘Betta’ wheat isolines with the Dn1 and Dn2 genes was compared by assessing chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, and aphid fecundity. The resistant Betta isolines (i.e., Betta-Dn1 and Betta-Dn2) supported similar numbers of aphids, but had significantly fewer than the susceptible Betta wheat, indicating these lines are resistant to aphid feeding. Diuraphis noxia feeding resulted in different responses in total chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations among the Betta wheat isolines. The infested Betta-Dn2 plants had higher levels of chlorophylls and carotenoids in comparison with uninfested plants. In contrast, infested Betta-Dn1 plants had the same level of chlorophyll and carotenoid in comparison with uninfested plants. Our data provide essential information on the effect of D. noxia feeding on chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations for Betta wheat and its isolines with D. noxia-resistant Dn1 and Dn2 genes.