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Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, neonate susceptibility to clothianidin, a contact and systemic neonicotinoid insecticide, was determined from both laboratory and field-collected populations. Neonates were exposed to filter paper treated with increasing clothianidin concentrations and mortality was evaluated after 24 h. Additionally, two populations were exposed to an artificial diet which was surface treated with clothianidin. Although larvae were five- to six-fold more sensitive to treated diet, results with treated filter paper were more reliable in terms of control mortality and required much less manipulation of rootworm larvae. Therefore, initial baseline comparisons were conducted using the filter paper assays. The variation among populations exposed to treated filter paper was generally low, 4.4-fold among laboratory populations tested; however, there was a 14.5-fold difference in susceptibility among all populations tested. In general, clothianidin was very toxic to rootworm neonates, with LC 50 values ranging from 1.5 to 21.9 ng/cm2. These results indicate the practicability and sensitivity of the paper filter disc assay to establish baseline susceptibility levels, which is an essential first step in resistance management. A baseline response provides a reference for tracking shifts in susceptibility following commercialization of a control agent so that early changes in susceptibility can be detected.