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The impact of aerial invasion of new habitats by dispersal of synanthropic arthropods on human society is one of the most important topics in the entomological world. A review is presented of important advances in the knowledge of dispersal of a number of dipteran species that cause damage to, or serve as vectors for diseases of, humans and associated animals. The components of aerial dispersal are delineated, and forms of dispersal are defined in the context of interactive forces that result in dispersal by synanthropic Diptera. Migratory flights by black flies are put into ecological perspective, as are the wind-borne movements of ceratopogonid vectors of viruses. Dispersal by house flies, screwworms, and stable flies are specifically addressed to trace the changes in technology used to detect and quantify aerial dispersal during the 20th century and to propose new ways to use current technology.