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Aphids are, arguably, the single most damaging group of agricultural insect pests throughout the world. Plant tolerance, which is a plant response to an insect pest, is viewed as an excellent management strategy. Developing testable hypotheses based on genome-wide and more focused methods will help in understanding the molecular underpinnings of plant tolerance to aphid herbivory. As a first step in this process, we undertook transcript profiling with Affymetrix GeneChip Barley Genome arrays using RNA extracted from tissues of tolerant and susceptible genotypes collected at three hours, three days and six days after Diuraphis noxia introduction. Acquired data were compared to identify changes unique to the tolerant barley at each harvest date. Transcript abundance of 4086 genes was differentially changed over the three harvest dates in tolerant and susceptible barley in response to D. noxia feeding. Across the three harvest dates, the greatest number of genes was differentially expressed in both barleys at three days after aphid introduction. A total of 909 genes showed significant levels of change in the tolerant barley in response to D. noxia feeding as compared to susceptible plants infested with aphids. Many of these genes could be assigned to specific metabolic categories, including several associated with plant defense and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Interestingly, two peroxidase genes, designated HvPRXAI and HvPRXA2, were up-regulated to a greater degree in response to D. noxia feeding on tolerant barley plants, indicating that specific peroxidases could be important for the tolerance process. These findings suggest that the ability to elevate and sustain levels of ROS-scavenging enzymes could play an important role in the tolerant response.