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Studies were conducted in Niger to compare pheromone-baited trapping systems for monitoring adults of the millet stem borer, Coniesta ignefusalis (Hampson), a pest of pearl millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Brown. A water-oil trap was effective after optimization of various trap parameters. A trap tray of 32-cm diameter was more effective and easier to handle than other sizes tested. Optimum trap shade size was 8-21 cm, positioned 2-5 cm above the tray. Motor oil, soap, or liquid detergent were more effective than vegetable oil as surfactants. The experimental trap caught significantly more male moths than four commercial traps. More moths were caught with large, thick polythene vial pheromone dispensers than small, thin vials, but the attractiveness of both declined significantly within 14 d. Trap catches were not greatly affected by the height of the crop or by the height of the trap above ground level when the traps were placed individually at different sites. However, when traps were stacked at different heights at one site, more moths were caught in traps at heights of 0.10-0.50 m than at 1.30 and 2.0 m above ground level, regardless of crop height. This system is appropriate for monitoring of pest populations by subsistence farmers and national and international agricultural research stations in the Sahelian region of Africa.