Entomology, Department of



Nicholas Miller

Date of this Version



Nanoth Vellichirammal et al. BMC Genomics (2015) 16:558; DOI 10.1186/s12864-015-1751-6


US govt work


Background: Despite a number of recent reports of insect resistance to transgenic crops expressing insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), little is known about the mechanism of resistance to these toxins. The purpose of this study is to identify genes associated with the mechanism of Cry1F toxin resistance in European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner). For this, we compared the global transcriptomic response of laboratory selected resistant and susceptible O. nubilalis strain to Cry1F toxin. We further identified constitutive transcriptional differences between the two strains.

Results: An O. nubilalis midgut transcriptome of 36,125 transcripts was assembled de novo from 106 million Illumina HiSeq and Roche 454 reads and used as a reference for estimation of differential gene expression analysis. Evaluation of gene expression profiles of midgut tissues from the Cry1F susceptible and resistant strains after toxin exposure identified a suite of genes that responded to the toxin in the susceptible strain (n = 1,654), but almost 20-fold fewer in the resistant strain (n = 84). A total of 5,455 midgut transcripts showed significant constitutive expression differences between Cry1F susceptible and resistant strains. Transcripts coding for previously identified Cry toxin receptors, cadherin and alkaline phosphatase and proteases were also differentially expressed in the midgut of the susceptible and resistant strains.

Conclusions: Our current study provides a valuable resource for further molecular characterization of Bt resistance and insect response to Cry1F toxin in O. nubilalis and other pest species.

neetha 1.pdf (323 kB)
Additional file 1: Figure S1.

neetha 2.xlsx (169 kB)
Additional file 2: Table S1.

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Additional file 3: Table S2.

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Additional file 5: Figure S2.

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Additional file 6: Table S4.

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Additional file 8: Figure S3.

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Additional file 10: Table S7.

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Additional file 11: Table S8.