Entomology, Department of


Date of this Version



International Journal of Pest Management 58:1 (January–March 2012), pp. 83–90

doi: 10.1080/09670874.2012.655702


Copyright © 2012 Taylor & Francis. Used by permission.


The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major pest of maize and frequently demands control measures. The timing of insecticide application is a key factor in determining its efficiency, so an experiment was designed to investigate this. Application of insecticide was based on three criteria: (i) the number of trap-caught moths in a Delta-type trap with a commercial sex pheromone lure placed in the center of the target area, soon after plant emergence; (ii) the percentage of plants exhibiting pinhole-type damage (10% or 20%), and (iii) the percentage of plants exhibiting shot hole–type damage (10% or 20%) compared to a check plot without any control measures. We found that the number of trap-caught moths was, compared to the other methods, the best means of deciding on insecticide application in maize to control the fall armyworm. Using pheromone traps, we obtained the best performance of the insecticide Spinosad, causing >90% larval mortality. Without insecticide application, maize yield reduction due to fall armyworm larva damage was 39%.