Entomology, Department of


Document Type


Date of this Version



The Author(s) 2019


(2019) 9:6713 | https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-43202-w


The western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) (WCR) is a major insect pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States (US) and is highly adaptable to multiple management tactics. A low level of WCR field-evolved resistance to pyrethroid insecticides has been confirmed in the US western Corn Belt by laboratory dose-response bioassays. Further investigation has identified detoxification enzymes as a potential part of the WCR resistance mechanism, which could affect the performance of insecticides that are structurally related to pyrethroids, such as organophosphates. Thus, the responses of pyrethroid-resistant and -susceptible WCR populations to the commonly used pyrethroid bifenthrin and organophosphate dimethoate were compared in active ingredient bioassays. Results revealed a relatively low level of WCR resistance to both active ingredients. Therefore, a simulated aerial application bioassay technique was developed to evaluate how the estimated resistance levels would affect performance of registered rates of formulated products. The simulated aerial application technique confirmed pyrethroid resistance to formulated rates of bifenthrin whereas formulated dimethoate provided optimal control. Results suggest that the relationship between levels of resistance observed in dose-response bioassays and actual efficacy of formulated product needs to be further explored to understand the practical implications of resistance.

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