Entomology, Department of


Date of this Version



Journal of Economic Entomology 77:2 (April 1984), pp. 495–499.

doi: 10.1093/jee/77.2.495


Copyright © 1984 Entomological Society of America; published by Oxford University Press. Used by permission.


Field trials were conducted in lowland flooded rice in the Philippines to evaluate a number of carbofuran controlled-release formulations in comparison with commercial formulations. The test formulations were based on a biodegradable matrix of pine kraft lignin and were used as granules of different sizes and also in the form of small strips. The release rates were assessed under field conditions by bioassaying rice plants in the field, using adult rice green leafhopper, Nephotettix virescens Distant. The lignin formulations with a high level of active ingredient (15–45% by weight) gave as good or better control than the commercial 3% granules in tests based on three application techniques: broadcast into the floodwater, soil incorporation, and root zone injection. The improvements in control levels of green leafhoppers were most marked with soil incorporation and root zone application. The best lignin-based formulation reduced levels of tungro virus infection from 23% for a conventional flowable carbofuran formulation to 1.0% at an application rate of 0.5 kg (AI)/ha. At the same rate, the grain yield was increased from 3.56 t/ha to 5.5 t/ha, using the controlled-released formulation.