Date of this Version
Journal of Economic Entomology, 112(6), 2019, 2915–2922
Striacosta albicosta (Smith) is a maize pest that has recently expanded its geographical range into the eastern United States and southeastern Canada. Aerial application of pyrethroids, such as bifenthrin, has been a major practice adopted to manage this pest. Reports of field failure of pyrethroids have increased since 2013. Striacosta albicosta populations were collected in 2016 and 2017 from maize fields in Nebraska, Kansas, and Canada and screened with bifenthrin active ingredient in larval contact dose-response bioassays. Resistance ratios estimated were generally low in 2016 (1.04- to 1.32-fold) with the highest LC50 in North Platte, NE (66.10 ng/cm2) and lowest in Scottsbluff, NE (50.10 ng/cm2). In 2017, O’Neill, NE showed the highest LC50 (100.66 ng/cm2) and Delhi, Canada exhibited the lowest (6.33 ng/cm2), resulting in a resistance ratio variation of 6.02- to 15.90-fold. Implications of bifenthrin resistance levels were further investigated by aerial application simulations. Experiments were conducted with a spray chamber where representative S. albicosta populations were exposed to labeled rates of a commercial bifenthrin formulation. Experiments resulted in 100% mortality for all populations, instars, insecticide rates, and carrier volumes, suggesting that levels of resistance estimated for bifenthrin active ingredient did not seem to impact the efficacy of the correspondent commercial product under controlled conditions. Results obtained from this research indicate that control failures reported in Nebraska could be associated with factors other than insecticide resistance, such as issues with the application technique, environmental conditions during and/or after application, or the insect’s natural behavior. Data generated will assist future S. albicosta resistance management programs.