Date of this Version
Published in Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 156 (2019), pp 96–104.
Aedes aegypti is a vector of viruses that negatively impact human health. Insecticide resistance complicates mosquito control efforts, but understanding the mechanisms of resistance can help to improve management practices. This study examined different factors that could influence the interpretation of toxicity bioassays and gene expression studies in A. aegypti, including sex and age, in the context of resistance to pyrethroids. Bioassays using a pyrethroid-resistant strain, Puerto Rico (PR), and a pyrethroid-susceptible strain, Rockefeller (Rock), of A. aegypti were conducted with females and males of three age groups to determine differences in mortality induced by deltamethrin. Overall, strain was the only factor with a significant effect on the LD50. Enzyme assays showed that cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity in PR was constitutively higher than in Rock, and that pretreatment with the cytochrome P450 inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (PBO) followed by a topical application of deltamethrin (LD25) significantly increased mortality in both strains. Evaluation of the expression levels of seven CYP9J genes previously reported to be involved in pyrethroid resistance revealed that CYP9J10, CYP9J19, and CYP9J28 were more highly expressed in PR than in Rock at all ages of females and males, indicating that they may be essential for resistance. The expression of CYP9J24, CYP9J26, CYP9J27, and CYP9J32 was higher in PR males compared to other groups, including PR females. Significant differences in expression between sexes and strains were also observed as a result of age.