Entomology, Department of


Date of this Version



Published in Journal of Economic Entomology, 112:3 (2019), pp 1050–1054.

doi: 10.1093/jee/toz014


Copyright © 2019 James M. Wilson, Troy D. Anderson, and Thomas P. Kuhar. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. Used by permission.


Pyrifluquinazon (PQZ) is an Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) Group 9 insecticide that has recently been registered for use in the United States for control of soft-bodied sucking insect pests. Although it has been classified as practically nontoxic to honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), based on acute contact bioassays, additional information on sublethal effects of this insecticide on honey bees is lacking. Using a combination of laboratory assays with video movement tracking software and near-field evaluations of colonies foraging in a high-tunnel experiment, we determined that, when fed PQZ at a concentration of 84 mg active ingredient (ai)/liter (= ppm) in sugar water, a reduction in overall movement by the foraging worker bees was observed. However, when provided with honey reserves in the hive, honey bees rejected the PQZ-treated sugar water. These results indicate that, if ingested at levels of 84 mg ai/liter, PQZ could have a negative effect on honey bee behavior; however, honey bee workers appear to be able to detect the presence of PQZ in their food and reject it.

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