Entomology, Department of



Satyanarayana Tatineni https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0395-6000

Date of this Version



Mol Plant Pathol. 2021;00:1–13.

DOI: 10.1111/mpp.13113


This is an open access article under the terms of the Creat ive Commo ns Attri bution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. © 2021 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology published by British Society for Plant Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.


Brief history: In 1993, severe mosaic and necrosis symptoms were observed on corn (maize) and wheat from several Great Plains states of the USA. Based on the geographical location of infections, the disease was named High Plains disease and the causal agent was tentatively named High Plains virus. Subsequently, researchers renamed this virus as maize red stripe virus and wheat mosaic virus to represent the host and symptom phenotype of the virus. After sequencing the genome of the pathogen, the causal agent of High Plains disease was officially named as High Plains wheat mosaic virus. Hence, High Plains virus, maize red stripe virus, wheat mosaic virus, and High Plains wheat mosaic virus (HPWMoV) are synonyms for the causal agent of High Plains disease.

Taxonomy: High Plains wheat mosaic virus is one of the 21 definitive species in the genus Emaravirus in the family Fimoviridae.

Virion: The genomic RNAs are encapsidated in thread-like nucleocapsids in double-membrane 80–200 nm spherical or ovoid virions.

Genome characterization: The HPWMoV genome consists of eight single-stranded negative-sense RNA segments encoding a single open reading frame (ORF) in each genomic RNA segment. RNA 1 is 6,981-nucleotide (nt) long, coding for a 2,272 amino acid protein of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. RNA 2 is 2,211-nt long and codes for a 667 amino acid glycoprotein precursor. RNA 3 has two variants of 1,439-and 1,441-nt length that code for 286 and 289 amino acid nucleocapsid proteins, respectively. RNA 4 is 1,682-nt long, coding for a 364 amino acid protein. RNA 5 and RNA 6 are 1,715-and 1,752-nt long, respectively, and code for 478 and 492 amino acid proteins, respectively. RNA 7 and RNA 8 are 1,434-and 1,339-nt long, code for 305 and 176 amino acid proteins, respectively.

Biological properties: HPWMoV can infect wheat, corn (maize), barley, rye brome, oat, rye, green foxtail, yellow foxtail, and foxtail barley. HPWMoV is transmitted by the wheat curl mite and through corn seed.

Disease management: Genetic resistance against HPWMoV in wheat is not available, but most commercial corn hybrids are resistant while sweet corn varieties remain susceptible. Even though corn hybrids are resistant to virus, it still serves as a green bridge host that enables mites to carry the virus from corn to new crop wheat in the autumn. The main management strategy for High Plains disease in wheat relies on the management of green bridge hosts. Cultural practices such as avoiding early planting can be used to avoid