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Generic placement of Nearctic species of Ochodaeinae has lagged behind changes in generic concepts in the group. In order to place Nearctic species into the appropriate genus-level taxa, several nomenclatural changes are made. The new generic name Xenochodaeus is proposed for species with an elongate, subparallel sulcus on the propygidium and a longitudinally impressed mentum. The genus contains 6 species. Xenochodaeus americanus (Westwood), new combination, is valid and is removed from synonymy with X. musculus (Say), new combination. A neotype is designated for Odontaeus musculus. Ochodaeus opacus LeConte is synonymized under X. americanus. Other new combinations include Xenochodaeus luscinus (Howden), X. planifrons (Schaeffer), X. simplex (LeConte), and X. ulkei (Horn). The new generic name Cucochodaeus is proposed for species having the propygidial sulcus absent, stridulatory peg absent, and possessing 9 antennomeres. The genus contains 1 species, C. sparsus (LeConte), new combination. Ochodaeus mandibularis Linell is placed into synonymy with C. sparsus. Ochodaeus gnatho Fall is transferred to the genus Codocera Eschscholtz, resulting in C. gnatho (Fall), new combination. Two new combinations result from Nearctic species transferred to Neochodaeus Nikolajev: N. repandus (Fall) and N. striatus (LeConte). Three Nearctic species are transferred to Parochodaeus Nikolajev, resulting in new combinations: Parochodaeus californicus (Horn), P. duplex (LeConte), and P. peninsularis (Horn). A lectotype is designated for Ochodaeus kansanus Fall, and that same specimen is designated as the neotype of Ochodaeus duplex (LeConte), objectively synonymizing O. kansanus with O. duplex. A checklist of Nearctic species and key to Nearctic genera are provided.