Date of this Version
Little has been published on the life history of the five currently recognized species of Stephanucha Burmeister. Skelley (1991) published the most thorough treatment to date for S. thoracica Casey (recently synonymized with S. areata (F.) by Harpootlian 2001). Skelley located larvae in the mounds of the pocket gopher, Geomys pinetus Rafnesque, in Florida and was the first to describe an immature stage for the genus. Published accounts of Stephanucha species biology are consistent with respect to spring emergence, presence in sandy habitats, and a potential lack of adult feeding or liquid feeding (Lago et ul. 1979; Skelley 1991). Skelley (1991) suggested that the main habitat of Stephanucha spp. might be pocket gopher mounds. He noted sympatric distributions of Stephanucha spp. with pocket gophers, including S. pilipennis. Kraatz found in the range of G. bursarius (Shaw). However, he noted that the larvae he observed were nonspecific in habitat requirements, also utilizing mounds in sandy soil created by other organisms or processes.