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Histoplasmosis is a common and sometimes serious fungal disease that primarily affects the lungs, but can also involve other parts of the human body. The disease is characterized by 3 major forms: acute pulmonary, chronic cavitary, and disseminated histoplasmos is. Two fungicides are effective in treatment of the disease, but serious side effects often result. The occurrence of the fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum, is associated with large quantities of bird and bat excreta that have come in contact with soil. Roost sites must generally be occupied by birds for at least 3 years before soil conditions are conducive to its growth. Once established, the fungus remains for years, but its development can be prevented by bird dispersal and lethal bird control techniques. Infested sites may, with difficulty, be decontaminated using formal in.