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This NebGuide describes procedures for introducing chlorine to eliminate bacteria in private water systems. Unlike public water supplies that are regularly tested to ensure the water is safe to drink, individuals or families using private water supplies are responsible for testing for contamination. If test results indicate that bacterial contamination is occurring, shock chlorination is the most widely suggested method of treatment. Shock chlorination is the one-time introduction of a strong chlorine solution into the entire water distribution system (well, pump, distribution pipeline, hot water heater, etc.).