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Vitamins are organic substances that are required in very small quantities for various metabolic functions. Twenty-five to 30 have been identified, but cattle can synthesize all that are needed of these vitamins in the rumen except for two or three. Even though the supplemental amounts needed of these two or three vitamins (A and possibly D and E) are quite small, a deficiency can have a drastic effect on the animal. The NebGuide discusses these effects.