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Upper Cretaceous sediments of the Kanguk Formation exposed in Eidsbotn and Viks Fiord grabens on Devon Island, Nunavut, Canadian High Arctic, yielded 91 fossil marine diatom species and varieties (including indeterminate taxa), representing 41 genera. Excellent preservation of the assemblages was aided by shallow burial, protection in downfaulted linear grabens, and the presence of abundant volcanic material. Planktonic species and resting spores comprise nearly 70% of the diatom assemblage, and provided abundant food resources for the Late Cretaceous Arctic ecosystem. Deposition of the approximately 225 m-thick stratigraphic sequence was predominantly in a shallow marine neritic setting, with an upward progression to interbedded terrestrial deposits of the Expedition Fiord Formation, reflecting a regression and eventual persistence of terrestrial facies into the Early Cenozoic. The Kanguk Formation is widespread across the Canadian Arctic, and diatom biostratigraphy indicates a Santonian–Campanian age for the sequences reported herein, based on the presence of Gladius antiquus in the lowermost strata and occurrence of Costopyxis antiqua throughout the succession. However, Amblypyrgus sp. A and Archepyrgus sp. aff. A. melosiroides, encountered in the lower part of the succession, are known exclusively from the Lower Cretaceous. This may suggest a slightly older age. New information on shallow shelf diatom assemblages from this study is compared to reports on two other Late Cretacous Arctic diatom assemblages. These three sites represent an environmental transect from shallow to distal shelf settings and into the oceanic realm.