Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Department of


Date of this Version



© 2008 American Meteorological Society

DOI: 10.1175/2008WAF2007007.1


An analysis of 4 yr of Rapid Update Cycle-2 (RUC-2) derived soundings in proximity to radar-observed supercells and nonsupercells is conducted in an effort to answer two questions: 1) over what depth is the fixed-layer bulk wind differential (BWD; the vector difference between the wind velocity at a given level and the wind velocity at the surface) the best discriminator between supercell and nonsupercell environments and 2) does the upper-tropospheric storm-relative flow (UTSRF) discriminate between the environments of supercells and nonsupercells? Previous climatologies of sounding-based supercell forecast parameters have documented the ability of the 0–6-km BWD in delineating supercell from nonsupercell environments. However, a systematic examination of a wide range of layers has never been documented. The UTSRF has previously been tested as a parameter for discriminating between supercell and nonsupercell environments and there is some evidence that supercells may be sensitive to the UTSRF. However, this sensitivity may be a consequence of the correlation between UTSRF and the surface to midtropospheric BWD. Accurately assessing the ability of the UTSRF to distinguish between supercell and nonsupercell environments requires controlling for the surface to midtropospheric BWD. It is shown that the bulk wind differential within the 0–5-km layer delineates best between supercell and nonsupercell environments. Analysis of the UTSRF demonstrates that even when not controlling for the BWD, the UTSRF has limited reliability in forecasting supercells. The lack of merit in using the UTSRF to forecast supercells is particularly evident when it is isolated from the BWD. Because the UTSRF and BWD are not independent, controlling for the BWD when examining the UTSRF reveals that the UTSRF is not a fundamental parameter that can be used to distinguish supercell from nonsupercell environments. Therefore, this work demonstrates that the UTSRF is an unreliable metric for forecasting supercell events.