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A study was conducted in Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota, to collect basic information on black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) dispersal and to test alternative control techniques. Dispersal occurred during a limited time period in late spring, involved both male and female prairie dogs, and resulted in relatively short movements and poor survivorship. The use of artificial visual barriers to inhibit colony expansion was effective but difficult to apply. The use of diethylstilbestrol as a temporary anti-fertility agent was shown to be an easy and effective method to reduce prairie dog reproduction and decrease colony expansion.