Date of this Version
It is a little disputed fact that each year birds cause damage through crop depredation, roosting activities, and bird/aircraft strike damage with occasionally associated loss of life . Stephen (1961) cites an article by Elkins (1957) which said ducks cause millions of dollars of loss to barley, oats, and wheat crops in Canadian prairies. Damage to ripening cereal grain crops in the western United States is one of the most widespread bird problems (DeGrazio 1964). Zajanc (1962) reports these losses are estimated at $15 million annually in three western states alone where blackbirds feed in fields of rice, corn, small grains, truck crops, nuts, and fruits located near roosting areas.