Wildlife Damage Management, Internet Center for


Date of this Version

December 1979


Birds cause damage to a variety of crops in North America and, at least for blackbirds feeding on corn, there are fairly accurate estimates of the amount of damage that occurs (Stone et al. 1972, Stickley et al. 1979). To combat these depredation problems, a variety of management tools (cultural methods, mechanical scare devices, chemical toxicants, and repellents)have been developed and are routinely recommended to farmers. Unfortunately, little effort has gone into examing the anticipated or actual losses in relation to the effectiveness and costs of the recommended damage control programs.