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component of any total pest control program. There are many species of rodents that enter buildings, usually for the purpose of shelter and/or food. They may enter in the fall to survive the winter weather, or in the spring to have a safe place to give birth to their young. Much has been written about rodent-proofing buildings to keep out both native and introduced rats and mice. This article will try and cover methods that can be used to keep out our native squirrels, which include the eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), the western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus), the eastern fox squirrel (Sciurus niger the red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus the Douglas squirrel or chickaree (Tamiasciurus douglasii the southern flying squirrel (Glaucomvs ), and the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomvs sabrinus) Roof or black rats (Rattus rattus) have similar behavior to squirrels when entering structures. Therefore, any discussion of squirrels also applies to roof rats. Rodent-proofing methods, especially for squirrels, are in more demand now because of overpopulations of these animals in urbanizing environments. Also, cedar wood is being used more as a building material, mostly on residential structures. Cedar, being a soft wood, is more susceptible to rodent damage. Before actual rodent-proofing can take place, a thorough inspection of the structure should be made. Make note of vulnerable areas, as well as areas which are being used. If an animal is in the structure, it must be removed before rodent-proofing. However, for this article, animal removal techniques will not be discussed.