Wildlife Damage Management, Internet Center for


Date of this Version

December 1993


A variety of factors including increased urbanization, decreased funding for governmental animal damage programs, and increases in some urban wildlife populations have resulted in a greater demand for urban nuisance wildlife control. Historically, this demand was met by Cooperative Extension Service (San Julian 1987), state fish and wildlife agency, or USDA-APHIS-ADC employees (Bollengier 1987). These agencies provided educational materials, consultations, and/or physically removed animals. Recently, there is an increased demand for physical animal removal evidenced by increasing numbers of private pest control operators (PCO) specializing as urban nuisance wildlife control operators (NWCO).