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We examined responses of rangeland vegetation to exclusion of cattle and control of black-tailed prairie dogs ( n m s ludovicianus). Our objective was to determine the response in: 1) annual net primary production (ANPP) and 2) mean grass height (PH) to prairie dog control and/or livestock exclusion. We conducted the research in the northern mixed-grass prairie of Nebraska's central Panhandle. Average annual rainfall is shout 3 5 cm (14 in).