Date of this Version
A random sample of 93 deer-fenced farms in northern Lower and Upper Michigan and northeast Wisconsin and 250 non-deer-fenced farms in 5 Upper Michigan counties with high white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations was surveyed by mail using 2 different questionnaires. High-tensile electric was the most commonly used type of deer exclusion fence. A 1.8 m (6 ft) height apparently provided the best balance between effectiveness, cost, and ease of installation. Fence users perceived that 2.4 m (8 ft) woven wire was most effective. However, the high cost of installation limited widespread use. Other types of fence with inconsistent or low ratings by users were high-tensile non-electric and 1 or 2 wire temporary fencing. Farmers perceived that all non-fencing deer control alternatives were relatively ineffective with the exception of state issued deer shooting permits.