Date of this Version
lmmunocontraception technology appears to have viable application in wildlife damage management. However, administration of these vaccines is presently performed by syringe injection or remote delivery by darts or bio-bullets. In order for immunocontraception to be successful for broad scale application to free-roaming animals, the vaccine must be delivered in an oral form. Recent advances in molecular biology, immunology, and pathology of mucosal infection gives us tools to develop effective oral vaccines. Oral immunocontraceptive vaccine encapsulated in adhesive liposomes or non-virulent live vectors holds promise as a practical approach for immunocontraception of free-roaming wildlife. Issues of safety, species specificity, regulatory constraints, and field application of the vaccine will need to be addressed.