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In his first book, Playing Indian (1998), Philip Deloria examined the ways that non-Indians used American Indian images to create their own identity. In his latest book, Deloria looks at the American Indians who challenged the assumptions that often informed those representations. During the first few decades of the twentieth century, American Indians appeared in places where non-Indians did not expect to find them-on football fields, in beauty parlors, in Cadillacs. As Indians entered these unexpected places, they challenged notions of modernity, tradition, and the conventional role many people had created for them. Ultimately, though, they failed to change America's racial beliefs and ideology.