U.S. Department of Agriculture: Agricultural Research Service, Lincoln, Nebraska



Date of this Version


Document Type



Published in Beef Research Program Progress Report (1993) No. 4 (Part 1): c-iv



General Interest

Beef facilities and management at U.S. Meat Animal Research Center: W. Gordon Hays and Gary S. Ross .... 1

Genetics and Breeding

Cycle V of the germplasm evaluation (GPE) program in beef cattle: Larry V. Cundiff, Keith E. Gregory, and Robert M. Koch .... 3

Contributions of ovum cytoplasm and uterine environment and postnatal environment to maternal effects in beef cattle: Keith E. Gregory, and Ralph R. Maurer .... 6

Germplasm utilization in beef cattle: Keith E. Gregory, Larry V. Cundiff, Robert M. Koch, and Donald D. Lunstra .... 7

Use of crossbreeding and breed differences to meet specific targets for production and carcass traits of beef cattle: Keith E. Gregory, Larry V. Cundiff, and Robert M. Koch .... 20

Differences among parental breeds in germplasm utilization project: Keith E. Gregory, Larry V. Cundiff, Robert M. Koch, and Donald D. Lunstra .... 22

Estimates of genetic and phenotype parameters of pelvic measures, weight, height, calf birth weight and dystocia in beef cattle: Keith E. Gregory, Larry V. Cundiff, and Robert M. Koch .... 43

Twinning in cattle: Keith E. Gregory, Sherrill E. Echternkamp, L. Dale Van Vleck, and Larry V. Cundiff .... 48

Mortality and cold tolerance of calves with different ratios of Bos indicus to Bos taurus inheritance: Maurie J. Josey, Larry V. Cundiff, Robert M. Koch, Keith E. Gregory, and G. LeRoy Hahn .... 52

Biological efficiency differences among Bos taurus x Bos taurus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus F1-Cross Cows: Ronnie D. Green, Larry V. Cundiff, Gordon E. Dickerson, and Thomas G. Jenkins .... 55

Characteristics of diverse breeds in cycle IV of the cattle germplasm evaluation program: Larry V. Cundiff, Robert M. Koch, Keith E. Gregory, John D. Crouse, and Michael E. Dikeman .... 57

Genes of the major histocompatibility complex in cattle: Roger T. Stone and Noelle E. Muggli-Cockett .... 61

Effect of marbling on variation and change in beef tenderness in Bos taurus and Bos indicus crosses: Robert M. Koch, John D. Crouse, Michael E. Dikeman, Larry V. Cundiff, and Keith E. Gregory .... 63

Genotype-environment interactions for reproduction and maternal performance of Bos indicus and Bos taurus crosses in Nebraska and Florida: Larry V. Cundiff, Timothy A. Olson, K. Euclides Filho, M. Koger, W. T. Butts, and Keith E. Gregory .... 65

Gene mapping in cattle: Craig W. Beattie, Roger T. Stone, Michael D. Bishop, Sara L.F. Sunden, John W. Keele, and Steven M. Kappes .... 67


Identification of twin pregnancies in cattle by ultrasonography: Sherrill E. Echternkamp and Keith E. Gregory .... 68

Hormone profiles in cattle selected for twin owlations and births: Sherrill E. Echtemkamp, Leon J. Spicer, and Keith E. Gregory .... 71

Can cattle be litter bearing? Uterine capacity in cattle: Sherrill E. Echternkamp .... 74

Bovine embryos from Bluetongue infected donors did not transmit virus to susceptible recipients: John A. Acree, Sherrill E. Echternkamp, Steve M. Kappes, Gary S. Ross, Albert J. Luedke, and James E. Pearson .... 78

Superovulation of cows by initiating FSH treatments during the first few days after estrus: Andrew J. Roberts and Sherrill E. Echternkamp .... 80

Factors involved in regulating the development of ovarian follicles in cattle: Andrew J. Roberts, Sherrill E. Echternkamp, Judith M. Grizzle, and Thomas Wise .... 83

The relationship of metabolic hormones, nutrition, and postpartum anestrus in different biological types of cattle: Andrew J. Roberts, Russell A. Nugent III, Thomas G. Jenkins, and John M. Klindt .... 85

Scrotal thermography as a tool for predicting semen quality and natural-mating fertility in young beef bulls: Donald D. Lunstra, and Glenn H. Coulter .... 86

Puberty occurs at the same testis size in both Bos taurus and Bos indicus crossbred beef bulls: Donald D. Lunstra, John D. Crouse, and Larry V. Cundiff .... 90

Immunization against inhibin increases sperm production in young beef bulls: Donald D. Lunstra, Terry L. Martin, Gary L. Williams, and James J. Ireland .... 93

Effect of method of estrous synchronization on oocyte quality and follicular insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I): Thomas H. Wise and Ralph R. Maurer .... 96

Follicular hormonal changes and oocyte quality in heifers that exhibited an LH surge, no LH surge, or in which the LH surge was suppressed with progestin: Thomas H. Wise and Ralph R. Maurer .... 99

Relationships of thymic peptides thymosin α1 and β4 with reproductive status: puberty and estrus: Thomas H. Wise, Michael L. Day, James E. Kinder, and Ralph R. Maurer .... 102


Factors influencing fetal growth and birth weight in cattle: Calvin L. Ferrell .... 104

Feedlot and carcass characteristics of heifers: Effect of ovariectomy and ovariectomy with ovarian autograft: John M. Klindt and John D. Crouse .... 108

Is fiber digestion in the rumen reduced by catabolite repression?: Kevin L. Anderson and Vincent H. Varel .... 112

Omasal and duodenal nutrient flow in steers: Kelly K. Kreikemeier, Gary P. Rupp, and Louis J. Perino .... 114

Fiber degrading microorganisms from bison, cattle-bison hybrids and cattle: Vincent H. Varel and Burk A. Dehority .... 116

Energy expenditures of mature cows during the production cycle: Calvin L. Ferrell and Thomas G. Jenkins .... 118


Improving the microbiological quality of meat: James S. Dickson and Gregory R. Siragusa .... 119

Predicting the growth of salmonellae on beef: James S. Dickson, Gregory R. Siragusa, and James E. Wray, Jr. .... 121

Use of calcium alginate to immobilize antimicrobial agents on beef tissue: Gregory R. Siragusa and James S. Dickson .... 123

Comparisons of Bos indicus and Bos taurus inheritance for carcass beef characteristics and meat palatability: John D. Crouse, Larry V. Cundiff, Robert M. Koch, Mohammad Koohmaraie, and Steve C. Seideman .... 125

Effects of a β-agonist on muscle protein degradation, enzyme activity, and meat tenderness in steers: Tommy L. Wheeler and Mohammad Koohmaraie .... 128

Meat tenderness and the calpain enzyme system in young bulls and steers: Tommy L. Wheeler, J. Brad Morgan, Mohammad Koohmaraie, Jeff W. Savell, and John D. Crouse .... 131

Effect of marbling degree on palatability and caloric content of beef: Tommy L. Wheeler, Larry V. Cundiff, and Robert M. Koch .... 133

Effect of castration on skeletal muscle protein turnover and muscle enzyme activities in cattle: Tommy L. Wheeler, J. Brad Morgan, Mohammad Koohmaraie, John D. Crouse, and Jeff W. Savell .... 135

Bos indicus breeding effects on muscle characteristics and their relationship with meat tenderness: Georgianna Whipple, Mohammad Koohmaraie, Michael E. Dikeman, John D. Crouse, and Melvin C. Hunt ... 137

Acceleration of postmortem tenderization in Brahman-cross beef carcasses by calcium chloride: Mohammad Koohmaraie, Georgianna Whipple, and John D. Crouse ... 139

A calcium chloride injection process to produce guaranteed tender and calcium fortified meat: Tommy L. Wheeler, Mohammad Koohmaraie, and John D. Crouse .... 141

Improving beef tenderness with calcium marination: Georgianna Whipple, and Mohammad Koohmaraie .... 143

The effectiveness of subjecting Bos indicus crossbred beef carcasses to higher temperatures to improve tenderness: Georgianna Whipple, Mohammad Koohmaraie, Michael E. Dikeman, and John D. Crouse .... 144

Biological Engineering

Characterizing stress in feeder cattle: G. LeRoy Hahn and John A. Nienaber .... 146

Heat and moisture production and dissipation in beef cattle: John A. Nienaber, G. LeRoy Hahn, and Anders Ehrlemark .... 149

Production Systems

Influence of controlled energy intake on body composition of beef steers: John W. Keele, Calvin L. Ferrell, Ralph N. Arnold, Mike E. Dikeman, and Melvin C. Hunt .... 151

Management factors influencing the feeding of young bulls for market-ready beef: Michael D. MacNeil, Keith E. Gregory, and J. Joe Ford .... 154

Evaluation of four computer models for prediction of growth and body composition: Gary L. Bennett and Ralph N. Arnold .... 155

Conversion efficiency through weaning of nine breeds of cattle: Thomas G. Jenkins and Calvin L. Ferrell .... 156

Characterization of lactation curves for nine breeds of cattle fed differing rations: Thomas G. Jenkins and Calvin L. Ferrell .... 158

Estimates of mature weights and maturing rates for breed crosses: Thomas G. Jenkins, Miroslav Kaps, Larry V. Cundiff, and Calvin L. Ferrell .... 160

Simulated effects of herd-level management strategies on efficiency of beef production: Michael D. MacNeil, Don D. Kress, and Gordon E. Dickerson .... 162

Using crossbreeding systems to produce beef: Michael D. MacNeil, Larry V. Cundiff, Keith E. Gregory,and Robert M. Koch .... 164

Effects of inbreeding and heterosis in Hereford lines on reproduction and maternal performance: Michael D. MacNeil, Delwyn D. Dearborn, Larry V. Cundiff, Chris A. Dinkel, and Keith E. Gregory .... 167

Postpartum interval is influenced by nutritional environment and biological type: Russell A. Nugent III, Thomas G. Jenkins, Andrew J. Roberts, and John M. Klindt .... 168

Computer simulation of body composition in growing and finishing beef cattle: Charles B. Williams, John W. Keele, and Gary L. Bennett .... 170

A new approach to estimating empty-body weight in growing and finishing beef cattle: Charles B. Williams, John W. Keele, and Dale R. Waldo .... 172

Animal Health Systems

Beef cattle Salmonellosis: A study of oral Salmonella typhimurium and topical Salmonella newport inoculations: Ed K. Daniels, Neal E. Woollen, James S. Dickson, and E. Travis Littledike .... 174

Determination of passive immunity in calves: Louis J. Perino, R. James Sutherland, and Neal E. Woollen .... 176

Development of a method for the serological differentiation between animals either vaccinated with killed virus vaccine or infected by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV): Jimmy Kwang and E. Travis Littledike .... 178

Development of a sensitive antibody detection method to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection: Jimmy Kwang and E. Travis Littledike .... 179

Consequences of antigenic diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus: E. Travis Littledike, Steven R. Bolin, and Julia F. Ridpath .... 180

Brachygnathia in Simmental cattle: Neal E. Woollen .... 183

Transmission of bovine leukosis virus: Louis J. Perino, E. Travis Littledike, Larry V. Cundiff, and Catherine E. Dewey .... 184

Isolation of Pasteurella spp. from sick and healthy feedlot calves using four different sampling techniques: Keith A. Gilmore, D.Dee Griffin, and Louis J. Perino .... 186