U.S. Department of Agriculture: Agricultural Research Service, Lincoln, Nebraska


Date of this Version


Document Type



Insects 2021, 12, 387.



This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license


The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, is a coleopteran pest of stored grains and is mainly controlled by phosphine fumigation, but the increase in phosphine-resistant populations threatens efficacy. Some phosphine-resistant insects have reduced respiration, and thus studying the mitochondrial genome may provide additional information regarding resistance. Genomic DNA from an inbred laboratory strain of R. dominica was extracted and sequenced with both short (Illumina) and long (Pacific Biosciences) read technologies for whole genome sequence assembly and annotation. Short read sequences were assembled and annotated by open software to identify mitochondrial sequences, and the assembled sequence was manually annotated and verified by long read sequences. The mitochondrial genome sequence for R. dominica had a total length of 15,724 bp and encoded 22 trna genes, 2 rRNA genes, 13 protein coding genes (7 nad subunits, 3 cox, 2 atp, and 1 cytB), flanked by a long control region. We compared our predicted mitochondrial genome to that of another from a R. dominica strain from Jingziguan (China). While there was mostly agreement between the two assemblies, key differences will be further examined to determine if mutations in populations are related to insecticide control pressure, mainly that of phosphine. Differences in sequence data, assembly, and annotation also may result in different genome interpretations.