Wildlife Damage Management, Internet Center for


Date of this Version



Published in Human-Wildlife Conflicts Volume 1, Number 1, Pages 68–77, Spring 2007. Published and copyright by the Jack H. Berryman Institute. http://www.berrymaninstitute.org/journal/index.html


Cattle are the main reservoir for human infection by pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. To prevent entry of these food-borne pathogens into the human food chain, management factors at the farm level must be identified and controlled. External sources of contamination, such as birds, should be considered as potential sources of transmission over long distances. In this review, we focus on the epidemiology of infection by E. coli and S. enterica and the consequences of birds acting as disseminators of these pathogens at dairy farms in terms of cattle health and the subsequent effects on human health.