Wildlife Damage Management, Internet Center for


Date of this Version

Spring 2009


Published in Human–Wildlife Conflicts 3(1):103–115, Spring 2009. Published and copyright by Jack H. Berryman Institute http://www.berrymaninstitute.org/journal/index.html


We evaluated 6 different porcine zona pellucida (PZP) preparations used as a single-shot vaccine for multiyear contraception of captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The study compared 2 PZP preparation technologies from ImmunoVaccine Technologies ™ (IVT) and National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) over a 7-year period. The study compared both the use of oil in an emulsion and in suspension delivery, as well as replacement of the oil with an alum adjuvant. The study demonstrated that the oil emulsion adjuvant provided the longest lasting response. PZP isolated by the IVT provides a longer-lasting response than the preparation used by NWRC. The SpayVacTM and IVT-PZP vaccines presented in an emulsion form with AdjuVac™ produce a single-shot immunocontraceptive vaccine lasting up to 7 years.