U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version



Published in Journal of Wildlife Management (2011) 75:1581-1587


Growing vulture populations represent increasing hazards to civil and military aircraft. To assess vulture flight behavior and activity patterns at the Marine Corps Air Station in Beaufort, South Carolina, we equipped 11 black vultures (Coragyps atratus) and 11 turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) with solarpowered Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite transmitters during a 2-year study (1 Oct 2006–30 Sep 2008). Turkey vultures had larger seasonal home ranges than did black vultures, and 2 turkey vultures made round-trips to Florida. Black vultures consistently spent less time in flight (8.4%) than did turkey vultures (18.9%), and black vultures flew at higher altitudes than did turkey vultures in all seasons except summer when altitudinal distributions (above ground level) did not differ. Although we recorded maximum altitudes of 1,578 mfor black vultures and 1,378 for turkey vultures, most flights were low altitude. A matrix of vulture flight altitude versus time of day revealed that >60% of vulture flight activity occurred from 4 hr to 9 hr after sunrise at altitudes below 200 m. Continuation of aggressive harassment coupled with flexible training schedules to avoid times and altitudes of high vulture activity will decrease hazards to aircraft posed by these birds.