U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version



Wildlife Society Bulletin 36(4):807–812; 2012; DOI: 10.1002/wsb.193


We developed a novel small-volume (24-L) conical-shaped isoflurane anesthesia induction chamber for use in a den chamber and tested it along with 3 conventional stand-alone induction chambers (2 clear acrylic plastic chambers and a cylindrical-shaped chamber) to determine utility for daily short-duration manipulations of captive raccoons (Procyon lotor). Although the conventional chambers were valuable, the majority of inductions were performed using the cone chamber in a pen setting. With the novel device, we were able to minimize the need for pre-anesthetic handling of animals and eliminate the need for injectable anesthesia agents. As a result, side effects normally associated with injectable agents were avoided. Mean anesthesia induction time using the cone chamber was 3.4 min (SD = 0.90). When used as designed, conventional chambers worked well, with induction times ranging from 2.7 min to 5.4 min. Because the stand-alone chambers were not reliant upon den chambers for use, they may provide greater utility for field work. The conical-shaped induction chamber, however, provides an option for safe short-duration anesthetization of captive raccoons and could perhaps be used with other species and in other research settings.