U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version



Proceedings of the 14th WDM Conference (2012).


Thousands of species of plants and animals have been introduced to various parts of the world (Pimental 2011). Greatly increased levels of travel and international trade have been, in large part, responsible, but many pathways of introduction are involved and these vary by taxonomic group. Much concern, action, and funding has been directed towards invasive pathogens, insects, and plants because of the threat to agriculture and livestock production. However, a very large number of vertebrates have also been introduced with some causing substantial damage and losses to human and natural resources.