U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version



National Sunflower Association Sunflower Research Forum, January 11-12, 2011. Fargo, ND. NSA Website Online Forum.


Beginning in 1991, USDA’s Wildlife Services (WS) began aerially spraying cattail-dominated wetlands with glyphosate herbicide to reduce sunflower damage by blackbirds. The techniques used by WS were developed by scientists over 20 years of research that included types of spray patterns, percent basin coverage, environmental impacts, and glyphosate concentrations and volumes. As the cattail management program enters its 20th year, we review published research that was used to support scientific needs of the management program.