U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version



Arch Environ Contam Toxicol (2011) 60:533–542 DOI 10.1007/s00244-010-9554-x


We tested the efficacy and palatability of nine commercial rodenticide bait formulations on Polynesian rats (Rattus exulans), roof rats (R. rattus), and house mice (Mus musculus). Efficacy varied by rodenticide tested and rodent species. Generally, rodenticides were more effective against mice than for either of the rat species, and mice tended to consume more rodenticide bait than the laboratory chow alternative food. Efficacy was generally highest for the second-generation anticoagulants tested; however, this varied across products and one-first-generation rodenticide had similar effectiveness. Bait acceptance (palatability) also varied both by rodenticide and by rodent species. Acceptance was the lowest for the acute rodenticides. Bait acceptance appeared to substantially affect the efficacy of rodenticides; materials that were not well accepted produced lower mortality rates. Rodenticide products currently registered for use in Hawaii performed less effectively in this study than other available products not yet registered. Although markets for rodent control products for use on islands are limited, there are advantages to having additional products registered for island use in agriculture, conservation, and public health.