U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version

November 2006


Aircraft collisions with birds (bird strikes) and other wildlife are a serious economic and safety problem. The problem has increased in the past decade because of expanding populations of many wildlife species that are hazardous to aviation (Dolbeer and Eschenfelder 2002). Cleary et al. (2004) estimated wildlife strikes (98% involving birds) cost the civil aviation industry in the USA about $500 million/year, 1990-2003. Allan and Orosz (2001) estimated that bird strikes annually cost commercial air carriers over $1.2 billion worldwide, 1999-2000. At least 194 people died and 164 aircraft were destroyed as a result of bird and other wildlife strikes with civil and military aircraft from 1988-2004 (Richardson and West 2000, Thorpe 2003, Cleary et al. 2004, Dolbeer unpublished data).