U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


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Belant, J.L., T.L. DeVault, and B.F. Blackwell. 2013. Conclusions and future directions. In: T.L. DeVault, B.F. Blackwell, and J.L. Belant, editors. Wildlife in Airport Environments: Preventing Animal-Aircraft Collisions through Science-Based Management. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, in association with The Wildlife Society. 167-170.


U.S. government work.


Although the management of wildlife at airports has seen great progress in recent decades, wildlife col~ lisians with aircraft continue to pose risks to human safety and economic losses to the aviation industry and military (Allan 2002, Dolbeer 2009). Our understanding of physiological and behavioral responses of wildlife to various types of repellents and harassment techniques has grown tremendously. Substantial in· roads have been made in developing and optimizing exclusion devices, particularly for mammals. Research and management have increased considerably in recent years, allowing us to better understand aspects of re· source use (e.g., cover, food) by wildlife and the spatial scales at which they operate (Martin et al. 2011), as well as to improve current management strategies. We suggest that these two forms of management- repellents and harassment (e.g., Chapters 2-4) and habitat management (e.g., Chapters 8-H)-should be integrated to reduce hazardous wildlife use of airports. Direct control methods (e.g., hazing) typically work only in the short term; reducing habitat suitability for wildlife at airports will likely enhance long-term efficacy of these techniques.

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