U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version



Human–Wildlife Interactions 9(1):36–47, Spring 2015


The double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) has undergone a significant range expansion in the Great Lakes area of the United States since the 1970s, negatively impacting native fish populations and sport fisheries. Effective management of wildlife requires policies and practices that quantify their economic impacts, which is often complicated by multiplier effects in the regional economy. This analysis estimates the potential direct and regional economic impacts of the cormorant to a recreational fishery. We estimated that the potential economic loss was on average $5 million to $66 million annually, as well as 66 to 929 job-years in the region annually over a 20-year period (1990 to 2009). This approach to calculating the economic impacts of wildlife damage can be applied to other wildlife to provide the most accurate estimate of total economic impacts.

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