Date of this Version
In: E. Martinez-Force, N.T. Dunford, and J.J. Salas, editors. Sunflower Chemistry, Production, Processing, and Utilization. AOCS Press, Urbana, Illinois, in association with USDA APHIS Wildlife Services NWRC. 175-186.
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is annually planted on approximately 26 million hectares in Australia, China, Europe, India, North America, Paldstan, Russia, South America, and Ukraine (National Sunflower Association, 2014). Flocks of granivorous birds, ranging in size from a few to millions, can be found in every sunflower growing region and have been documented to cause serious economic losses (Linz et al., 2011) (Figure 7.1). Avian species that damage sunflower generally belong to the parakeet (Psittacldae), dove (Columbidae), cockatoo (Cacatuidae), sparrow (Passeridae), crow (Corvidae), and blackbird (Icterinae) families (De Grazio, 1989; Linz and Hanzel, 1997; Linz et al., 2011; Rodriquez et al., 1995; van Niekerk, 2009).